The State of the Environment: HAWAI‘I 2016

INTRODUCTION

“ESRL Global Monitoring Division - Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network.” ESRL Co2 Trends. Accessed July 13, 2016. http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/

NOAA Headquarters. “Researchers in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands finds highest rates of unique marine species.” ScienceDaily. Accessed July 13, 2016. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151001154111.htm

Blane, David W., and Chung, Cristopher G. “The Ahupua‘a as a Traditional Hawaiian Resource Management Model for a Sustainable Coastal Environment.” Proceedings of Coasts at the Millennium Proceedings of the 17th International Conference of The Coastal Society, Portland, OR. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://nsgl.gso.uri.edu/oresu/oresuc00002/pdffiles/papers/049.pdf

U.S Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau website, Hawai‘i population estimates base, July 1, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045215/15

“Hypothetical Annual Population Projection for the United States by state 2001 to 2100.” Supplement to Quantitative Historical Analysis #1, Thirty Thousand, December 22, 2007. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.thirty-thousand.org/documents/QHA-01_2100.pdf

Last Stand: The Vanishing Hawaiian Forest. Nature Conservancy of Hawaii, 2003. Accessed July 21, 2016. http://www.nature.org/media/hawaii/the-last-stand-hawaiian-forest.pdf

University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. "70 Percent of Beaches Eroding on Kauai, Oahu and Maui." May 7, 2012. Accessed July 21, 2016. https://manoa.hawaii.edu/news/article.php?aId=5086

"Endangered Species—Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office." Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Accessed July 21, 2016. https://www.fws.gov/pacificislands/species.html

Juvik, Sonia P. Atlas of Hawaii, 3rd ed. University of Hawaii Press, 1998. University of Hawaii at Hilo, Department of Geography.

Mooney, Chris. 'Unprecedented': Third Straight Year of Global Coral Bleaching to Target U.S. Reefs, Scientists Say." The Washington Post, June 20, 2016. Accessed July 22, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/06/20/u-s-coral-reefs-are-next-in-the-crosshairs-in-ongoing-global-bleaching-event-u-s-scientists-say/

“Climate of Hawaii: Rainfall,” National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office, Honolulu, Hawaii. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/pages/climate_summary.php

Kennedy, Brian. "Public Support for Environmental Regulations Varies by State." Pew Research Center. February 25, 2016. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/02/25/public-support-for-environmental-regulations-varies-by-state/

FRESHWATER SECURITY

Introduction

Coping with Water Scarcity: Challenge of the 21st Century. UN-Water, the United National Inter-Agency Mechanism on all Freshwater Related Issues, Including Sanitation, 2007. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.unwater.org/wwd07/downloads/documents/escarcity.pdf

Onishi, Norimitsu, “Climate Change Hits Hard in Zambia, African Success Story.” The New York Times. April 12, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/13/world/africa/zambia-drought-climate-change-economy.html?_r=0

Timmons, Grady, “Last Stand: The Vanishing Hawaiian Forest.” The Nature Conservancy. 2003. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.nature.org/media/hawaii/the-last-stand-hawaiian-forest.pdf

Garza, Jessica A., Chu, Pao-Shin, Norton, Chase W.; “Changes of the prevailing trade winds over the islands of Hawaii and the North Pacific.” Journal of Geophysical Research. June 2012.

A Blueprint for Action: Water Security for an Uncertain Future, 2016-2018. Hawai‘i Freshwater Initiative. Hawai‘i Community Foundation. 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://issuu.com/hcfhawaii/docs/fresh_water_blueprint_final_062215__46c6615e6e60a5?e=1137810/33103441

Signs of progress

Lum, Burt. “Civil Geeks: UH Gets $20 Million to Study Fresh Water Aquifers,” Honolulu Civil Beat. May 13, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.civilbeat.org/2016/05/civil-geeks-uh-gets-20-million-to-study-fresh-water-aquifers/

“GOmeter.” Energy Excelerator. Accessed July 31, 2016. http://energyexcelerator.com/portfolio/gometer/

Shimogawa, Duane. “State of Hawaii looking to undergo $2M water recycling study for its airports.” Pacific Business News. Sep 4, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.bizjournals.com/pacific/news/2015/09/04/state-of-hawaii-looking-to-undergo-2m-water.html

Kohala watershed: Water recharging partnership

Kohala Watershed Partnership, Kohala Watershed Management Plan. Dec 2007. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://kohalawatershed.org/wp-content/uploads/janKWPmanagement_plan.pdf

Thirsty islands

U.S. Geological Survey. “Estimated Use of Water in the Unites States in 2010.” Accessed August 5, 2016. http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1405/pdf/circ1405.pdf

Rainmaker

State of Hawai‘i Natural Resource Management dashboard. Accessed August 5, 2016. https://dashboard.hawaii.gov/stat/goals/5xhf-begg/4s33-f5iv/wtjm-96jt

RENEWABLE ENERGY

Introduction

Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures, May 2016. Hawaii State Energy Office, State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://energy.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/FF_May2016_FINAL_5.13.16.pdf

Hawai‘i petroleum use be sector, 2015

Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures, May 2016. Hawaii State Energy Office, State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://energy.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/FF_May2016_FINAL_5.13.16.pdf

Fossil fuel addiction

Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures, May 2016. Hawaii State Energy Office, State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://energy.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/FF_May2016_FINAL_5.13.16.pdf

Pedal power

“Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Vehicle Miles, 1992 to 2014, and by County, 2013 and 2014,” 2014 State of Hawaii Data Book. Research and Economic Analysis Division, Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://files.hawaii.gov/dbedt/economic/databook/2014update/181715.pdf

Bikeshare Hawaii website. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.bikesharehawaii.org/

Signs of progress

Energy Efficiency Potential Study, State of Hawaii. Honolulu: Hawaii Public Utilities Commission, 2013. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://puc.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/State_of_HI_Potential_Study_Final.pdf

Morita, Hermina. “IRENA Innovation Week: Highlighting KIUC as the Postcard from the Future,” Energy Dynamics (blog), May 12, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.minamoritaenergydynamics.com/2016/05/irena-innovation-week-highlighting-kiuc.html

Renewable energy

The Hawaiian Electric Companies. 2015 Renewable Portfolio Standards Status Report for HECO, MECO, HELCO. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://puc.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/RPS-HECO-2015.pdf

Kaua‘i Island Utility Cooperative. Renewable Portfolio Standards Status Report Year Ending December 31 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. https://puc.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/RPS-KIUC-2015.pdf

Dollars and sense

U.S. Energy Information Administration. Hawai‘i State Profile and Energy Estimates. Accessed August 5, 2016. https://www.eia.gov/state/data.cfm?sid=HI#ConsumptionExpenditures

“GDP/Income/Price Dashboard.” Division of Research and Economic Analysis, Hawai‘i Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://files.hawaii.gov/dbedt/economic/image_DB/gdp_1.png

“The Department’s Budget.” Hawai‘i State Department of Education website. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/ConnectWithUs/Organization/Budget/Pages/home.aspx

Hawaii Tourism Authority. 2014 Annual Visitor Research Report. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://files.hawaii.gov/dbedt/visitor/visitor-research/2014-annual-visitor.pdf

COMMUNITY-BASED MARINE MANAGEMENT

Introduction

“Hawai‘i Marine Life Conservation Districts.” Division of Aquatic Resources website. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dar/marine-managed-areas/hawaii-marine-life-conservation-districts/

Juvik, Sonia P. Atlas of Hawaii, 3rd ed. University of Hawaii Press, 1998. University of Hawaii at Hilo, Department of Geography.

Aloha+ Challenge State of Hawai‘i Dashboard. Natural Resource Management: Marine Management. Accessed August 5, 2016. https://dashboard.hawaii.gov/aloha-challenge

Signs of progress

“DLNR Community Fisheries Enforcement Unit Works to Protect Coastal Marine Resources on Maui.” Division of Conservation and Resources Enforcement, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources. September 4, 2013. Accessed July 22, 2016. http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/docare/news/nr13-109d/

“Overview - Sustainable Coastlines Hawaii.” Sustainable Coastlines Hawaii website. Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.sustainablecoastlineshawaii.org/about/overview/

Reviving a tradition

“Hawaii’s first community fishing area signed into law by governor.” Aug. 4, 2014. Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://governor.hawaii.gov/newsroom/dlnr-news-release-hawaiis-first-community-fishing-area-signed-into-law-by-governor-ige/

Dollars + sense

“Hawaiian Archipelago’s Coral Reef Management Priorities: The State of Hawaii and NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program.” Priorities for Coral Reef Management in the Hawaiian Archipelago: 2010-2020. 2010. Silver Spring, Maryland: NOAA.

“State of the U.S. Ocean and Coastal Economies, 2016 Update.” Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey, Center for the Blue Economy. 2016. National Ocean Economics Program. Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.oceaneconomics.org/

Managing our waters

Aloha+ Challenge State of Hawai‘i Dashboard. Natural Resource Management: Marine Management. Accessed August 5, 2016. https://dashboard.hawaii.gov/aloha-challenge

Honest look: Nearshore fish catch

McCoy, Kaylyn and Friedlander, Alan. “Estimating Nearshore Fisheries Catch in the Main Hawaiian Islands.”  2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. https://www.sgmeet.com/icrs2016/viewabstract.asp?AbstractID=28770

DEPARTMENT OF LAND AND NATURAL RESOURCES

Introduction

"About DLNR." Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources website. Accessed July 26, 2016. http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/about-dlnr/

Improving access: Ho‘āla Loko Ia

Watson, Trisha Kēhaulani. “Final Environmental Assessment/Finding of No Significant Impact; Statewide Programmatic General Permit and Programmatic Agreement for the restoration, repair, maintenance and reconstruction of traditional Hawaiian fishpond systems across Hawai‘i.” September 2013. Office of Coastal and Conservation Lands, Hawai‘i Department of Lands and Natural Resources. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/occl/files/2013/08/Loko-Ia-Final-EA1.pdf

Did you know?

Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources website. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://dlnr.hawaii.gov

DLNR’s Tiny Slice of the State Pie

Budget in Brief, The FB 2015-17 Executive Biennium Budget. Dec. 22, 2014: Hawai‘i Department of Budget and Finance. Accessed July 25, 2016. https://budget.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Budget-in-Brief-FB15-17-BIB.pdf

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

INTRODUCTION

Burnett, Kimberly and Wada, Christopher. “Recent Trends in Hawai‘i’s Green Economy.” The Economic Research Organization at the University of Hawai‘i. January 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.uhero.hawaii.edu/assets/NRM1-20.2016.pdf

Melrose, Jeffrey; Perroy, Ryan; Cares, Sylvana. "2015 Statewide Agricultural Land Use Baseline." Hawai‘i Department of Agriculture. 2015. Accessed August 7, 2016. http://hdoa.hawaii.gov/salub

Leung, Pingsun and Loke, Matthew. “Economic Impacts of Increasing Hawai‘I’s Food Self-Sufficiency. December 2008. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai‘i. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://hdoa.hawaii.gov/add/files/2012/12/FoodSSReport.pdf

“Increased Food Security and Food Self-Sufficiency Strategy.” Hawai‘i Department of Business Economic Development & Tourism Office of Planning with the Hawai‘i Department of Agriculture. October 2012. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://files.hawaii.gov/dbedt/op/spb/INCREASED_FOOD_SECURITY_AND_FOOD_SELF_SUFFICIENCY_STRATEGY.pdf

Budget in Brief, The FB 2015-17 Executive Biennium Budget. Dec. 22, 2014: Hawai‘i Department of Budget and Finance. Accessed July 25, 2016. https://budget.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Budget-in-Brief-FB15-17-BIB.pdf

Ag in numbers / Then and Now / What’s growing, by acres

2015 State Agriculture Overview—Hawaii. United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. Accessed August 5, 2016. https://www.nass.usda.gov/Quick_Stats/Ag_Overview/stateOverview.php?state=HAWAII

Melrose, Jeffrey; Perroy, Ryan; Cares, Sylvana. "2015 Statewide Agricultural Land Use Baseline." Hawai‘i Department of Agriculture. 2015. Accessed August 07, 2016. http://hdoa.hawaii.gov/salub/

Opportunities for change

“Gov. Ige signs bills to boost manufacturing, strengthen the Good Samaritan law and establish farm to school program.” Office of the Governor of the State of Hawai‘i. July 7, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://governor.hawaii.gov/newsroom/news-release-governor-ige-signs-bills-to-boost-manufacturing-strengthen-the-good-samaritan-law-and-establish-farm-to-school-program/

Growing farmers: Program targets the ag curious

“Progress Report 2011-2014.” GoFarm Hawai‘i, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.gofarmhawaii.org/uploads/1/4/0/9/14095281/impact_report_20141229.pdf

Department of Agriculture’s Tiny Slice of the State Pie

Budget in Brief, The FB 2015-17 Executive Biennium Budget. Dec. 22, 2014: Hawai‘i Department of Budget and Finance. Accessed July 25, 2016. https://budget.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Budget-in-Brief-FB15-17-BIB.pdf

Did you know?

Hawai‘i Department of Agriculture website. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://hdoa.hawaii.gov/

ECO-MATRIX

Rapid ʻŌhiʻa Death Briefing Document. Issue brief. Honolulu, HI: Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources, May 10, 2016. Accessed July 26, 2016. http://www2.ctahr.hawaii.edu/forestry/downloads/Gov_ROD_Briefing_May10.2016.pdf

Loomis, Ilima. “Wasted.” Hawaii Business, February, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.hawaiibusiness.com/wasted/

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “NOAA declares third ever global coral bleaching event.” October 8, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2015/100815-noaa-declares-third-ever-global-coral-bleaching-event.html

Daysog, Rick. “Five million gallon oil plume beneath Pearl Harbor.” Hawaii News Now. Honolulu, HI, September 17, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.hawaiinewsnow.com/story/30060416/exclusive-5-m-gallon-oil-plume-beneath-pearl-harbor

Fortini LB, Vorsino AE, Amidon FA, Paxton EH, Jacobi JD (2015) “Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need 21st Century Conservation Options. PLoS ONE 10(10): e0140389. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140389 Accessed August 5, 2016. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0140389

“Hawai‘i’s Environmental Response, Energy, and Food Secruity Tax (aka Barrel Tax).” The Economic Research Organization at the University of Hawai‘i. February 12, 2014. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.uhero.hawaii.edu/news/view/269  

Anderson, Tiffany R., Fletcher, Charles H., Barbee, Matthew M., Frazer, L. Neil, and Romine, Bradley M. “Doubling of coastal erosion under rising sea level by mid-century in Hawaii.” Natural Hazards 78, Issue 1 (2015): 75-103. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11069-015-1698-6

"New Landfill Site." Solid Waste, Public Works, Departments and Agencies, Government. County of Kauai. Accessed July 26, 2016. http://www.kauai.gov/NewLandfillSite

Blair, Chad. “Hawaii Senate Approves Water Rights Bill Amid Loud Protests.” Honolulu Civil Beat. April 12, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.civilbeat.org/2016/04/hawaii-senate-approves-water-rights-bill-over-loud-protests/

“Cesspools in Hawai‘i.”  Hawai‘i Department of Health, Wastewater Branch. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://health.hawaii.gov/wastewater/cesspools/

Solomon, Molly. “One Year After the Ban, Plastic Bags Still An Issue on Oahu.” Hawaii Public Radio. August 4, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://hawaiipublicradio.org/post/one-year-after-ban-plastic-bags-still-issue-oahu

Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources website. http://dlnr.hawaii.gov/dar/fishing/fishing-regulations/

Riker, Marina Starleaf. “$20M grant to help UH study isles’ fresh water.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser. May 13, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.staradvertiser.com/hawaii-news/20m-grant-to-help-uh-study-isles-fresh-water/ 

Cardwell, Diane. “Biofuels Plant in Hawaii is First to Be Certified as Sustainable.” The New York Times. May 13, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/14/business/energy-environment/biofuels-plant-in-hawaii-is-first-to-be-certified-as-sustainable.html

“Sea Water Air Conditioning in Waikiki.” The Economic Research Organization at the University of Hawai‘i. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.uhero.hawaii.edu/85/sea-water-air-conditioning-in-waikiki

“New State Coral Nursery Provides ‘Insurance’ For Lost or Damaged Reefs.” Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources. February 11, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://governor.hawaii.gov/newsroom/dlnr-news-release-new-state-coral-nursery-provides-insurance-for-lost-or-damaged-reefs/

“Fundraiser ensures preservation of Ka Iwi Coastline.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser. August 21, 2015. Accessed August 5, 2015. http://www.staradvertiser.com/breaking-news/fundraiser-ensures-preservation-of-ka-iwi-coastline-2/ 

Associated Press. “Alexander & Baldwin to restore water to 8 Maui streams.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser, April 22, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.staradvertiser.com/breaking-news/alexander-baldwin-to-restore-water-to-8-maui-streams/

“The Mālama Honua Worldwide Voyage - Hōkūleʻa.” Hōkūleʻa website. Accessed August 05, 2016. http://www.hokulea.com/worldwide-voyage/

Eagle, Nathan. “Hawaiians Press Obama to Expand NW Islands Marine Monument.” Honolulu Civil Beat, February 16, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.civilbeat.org/2016/02/should-obama-expand-papahanaumokuakea/

Hawaii Energy Facts & Figures, May 2016. Hawaii State Energy Office, State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://energy.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/FF_May2016_FINAL_5.13.16.pdf

“State Electric Vehicle Program Hits Milestone.” Hawai‘i Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism. March 29, 2012. Accessed August 5, 2016. https://energy.hawaii.gov/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/NR_EVCHARGERS_Final3.29.12.pdf

Gomes, Andrew. “Turtle Bay deal to keep 468 acres as farmland.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser. April 5, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.staradvertiser.com/business/turtle-bay-deal-to-keep-468-acres-as-farmland/

“Governor signs new rule to designate 10-year fishing rest period for Ka‘ūpūlehu, West Hawai‘i.” Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources. July 27, 2016. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://governor.hawaii.gov/newsroom/latest-news/dlnr-news-release-governor-signs-new-rule-to-designate-10-year-fishing-rest-period-for-kaupulehu-west-hawaii/

NOAA Headquarters. “Researchers in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands finds highest rates of unique marine species.” ScienceDaily. Accessed August 5, 2016. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151001154111.htm

Photo acknowledgments

BikeShare Hawai‘i, Dana Edmunds, GoFarm Hawai‘i, Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources, Hui Maka‘āinana o Makana, Kohala Watershed Partnership, Paepae O He‘eia, Melora Purell, SunEdison